After the Prophet: The Epic Story of the Shia-Sunni Split in Islam



  • In this gripping narrative history, Lesley Hazleton tells the tragic story at the heart of the ongoing rivalry between the Sunni and Shia branches of Islam, a rift that dominates the news now more than ever.

    Even as Muhammad lay dying, the battle over who would take control of the new Islamic nation had begun, beginning a succession crisis marked by power grabs, assassination, political intrigue, and passionate faith. Soon Islam was embroiled in civil war, pitting its founder's controversial wife Aisha against his son-in-law Ali, and shattering Muhammad’s ideal of unity.

    Combining meticulous research with compelling storytelling, After the Prophet explores the volatile intersection of religion and politics, psychology and culture, and history and current events. It is an indispensable guide to the depth and power of the Shia–Sunni split

    http://www.amazon.com/After-Prophet-Story-Shia-Sunni-Split/dp/0385523947

    Good weekend read, download here:

    https://www.facebook.com/download/901275553278541/Hazleton-after-the-prophet-shia-sunni-split.pdf



  • Is author providing first hand information?



  • book is written by same author who wrote "The First Muslim" biography of Hazrat Muhammad PBUH. That biography was replete with factual errors and biased views and that topic is not even half as disputed as this one so , given her past litrary experience and quality with such a subject , this book most likely will have similar errors / in consistencies



  • @Shirazi

    curiousity asked a simple question. Being the initiator of the thread, you should answer the question.



  • @Curiousity Jee

    I don't think author is 1400 years old, he did research but his information can't be first hand.

    -;)



  • This post is deleted!


  • "I don't think author is 1400 years old, he did research but his information can't be first hand."

    Can you also tell us what sources did he use for his research??



  • No I can't.



  • That says it all!!

    Thank you.



  • most sunnis follow imam abu haneefa.and one of fatwas of imam abu haneefa is well guarded secret and every muslim govt hides that.this fatwa is that shia or rafawid are not muslims.he even went further by saying that who does not believe this is also a kafir.

    ..I myself thought first that this may be fake but when I searched on this I found that not only imam haneefa but all 5 imam s of sunnis said the same thing as well as shah ismaail dehelvi.

    so those people who dream of sunni shia unity ,they must forget it,till shia and sunni practice their religions fully they can never be one.uniting them is equal to uniting hindus muslims and jews.

    the strangest thing is though the present daesh or isis khilafat.arab scholars of well known repute have confirmed that daesh,s khalifa abubakar is from lineage of hazrat imam Husain raziallah unhu.still shia hate daesh khalifa worse than jews hated hitler!and on other hand those called "Wahhabis" support isis khalifa abubakar belonging to family of hazrat Husain raziallah unhu.world is showing us interesting things these days!because irani shia claim that wahabi hate ahl e bait of prophet and only shia are faithful to ahl e bait of prophet.than why not support khalifa bahghdadi whose lineage to Husain raziallah unhu is beyong any doubt.

    interesting and very conflicting times we live in.many people and groups are being exposed!



  • Can anyone comment on the text in this book that the genesis of Shias were mainly the inhabitant of Persian Empire with its capital in Greater Ctesiphon, just 20 miles south of current day Baghdad? Unlike the norms of the day, when Umar[r] took over this land, he discouraged conversion of these Zoroastrians and Christian to Islam.

    Umar setup a system of Diwan whereby a tax (Jazia) on certain number of non-Muslim was a handsome stipend for an Arab Muslim. Many of non-Muslims eventually converted to Islam taking it partly as a tax shelter but they were treated as second class Muslims by the Arab. [This sounds familiar even in today’s context].

    When Ali[r] became the Caliph (of half of the Muslim empire) in year 656, these second class Muslims of low lands of the shores of Euphrates and Tigris were welcomed as equals to the Arabs of the high steppes of peninsula. The Arabism of Umar and the Umayyadism of Othman became the things of the past. As Ali moved his capital from Madinah to Kufa and with the civil war that followed, these people developed a special affinity with Ali. With time they started calling themselves as SHIAN-e-ALI [Shia literally means a follower in classical Arabic); the Allies of Ali or the partisan of Ali. The actual Shia interpretation of Islam started to formulate hundred years later around 765.

    [That explains why Shia concentrate in Iraq and in the oil rich area of Saud's Arabia. The current day Iran became Shia in the 1500s as a result of a political goal of Shia Safavid dynasty, who invaded from south eastern Turkey.]

    One obvious cause of condemnation of the Allies of Ali by the other could have been that Shias betted on the wrong horse.



  • Can you also tell us what sources did he use for his research??

    Quote from her book:

    "Most of all, I am indebted to a man I never met and never

    could have: the famed Islamic historian Abu Jafar Muhammad ibn Jarir al-Tabari, who died in Baghdad in the year 923. Without his magisterial work, this book could never have been written."

    The 40 volumes of English translation of History by Tabari

    http://www.islamicbookstore.com/b3030.html

    .

    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=O7yaDlZfqrc



  • @Azizi Jee

    The earliest true followers ( Shias ) of Ali ibne Abi Talib were

    **

    Abū Dhar al-Ghifāri

    Ammār ibn Yāsir

    Miqdad ibn Aswād al-Kindi

    Salman the Persian**

    **And Fatima binte Mohammad (pbuh)

    **

    Those with inquiring minds read about these earliest true Shias of Ali ibne Abi Talib. They were amongst the most pious Sahabi of Prophet of Islam. Any abuse towards Shias in general would end up including these pious sahabis.

    As far as why some don't like Ali ibne Abi Talib, it is a fact that Ali ibne Abi Talib had intensity to justice unmatched during his time of khilafat. He eliminated classes of citizens in Muslim community treating Arab and Ajam alike, eliminating all nepotism. His intensity to justice led to his martyrdom as he was in sajdah in salaat.

    People confuse between Shias of Ali ibne Abi Talib and Fiqh-e-Jafria, which was formally made generally available through university to all by great-great-grandson of Ali ibne Abi Talib, Jafar. Majority of Shias follow this Fiqh, which was transmitted from Prophet through his progeny.



  • Ali ibne Abi Talib, it is a fact that Ali ibne Abi Talib had intensity to justice unmatched during his time of khilafat.

    Is that a joke? What Ali did with murderers of his predecessor Usman?



  • @curiousity

    Thanks for the info. I have read about Abu Zar and Salman Farsi but I do not know anything about the other two. Your comments did answer some of the questions in my mind, that why were not these companions mentioned in Sunni history after the Prophet. Can you recommend pointers about latter part of their lives and if they actively voiced for the political position of Ali[r] after the Prophet.

    @Sherazi Ji,

    You asked us to read the book but ... There is a well known American tradition. I know some Muslim kids in parochial schools who studied Bible as history. Many of us have issues with "The Mullah" but history does not lie. It clearly reveals the truths in the form of missing and misplaced dots. More I read it more I am convinced that it repeats and rhymes itself. Surely, the ugly part of it.

    @rambler313,

    so those people who dream of sunni shia unity ,they must forget it,till shia and sunni practice their religions fully they can never be one.uniting them is equal to uniting hindus muslims and jews.

    .

    I do not think unity was the purpose of this thread. However, understanding one another reduces the damages to human race.

    @all,

    How is Al-Tabari treated as historian by Shia and Sunni?



  • Things I did not know before reading this book.

    1. The Ansar got a zilch share of political power after the death of Prophet. It was all Muhajar Quresh and the Makkan Quresh until the end of Abbasid.

    2. Other than certain bitterness between Fatima and Abu Bakr/ Umar [rm] (which Sunni refute or try to hide under the rug) there are not much evidences of partialities against Ali[r] and his family until after he became Khalifa.

    3. Abu Sufian, the arch enemy of Islam until two years before the death of Prophet, strategically moved his kin closed to the power during the life of the Prophet. [Labeling and comparing one family with another is a complex matter in 7th century Arabia as cross faith, cross tribe marriages were common.]

    4. Abbas[r], the youngest uncle of the Prophet, had political ambitions that he unsuccessfully tried to convey through Ali to the passing away Prophet. This aspiration carried on within the family and ultimately his great grandson took over power after mass slaughtering the Umayyad, the family of Abu Sufian. That marked the start of Abbasid Empire [After the name of Prophet’s uncle, Abbas]. This point also indicates that Ali had little or no political desires at the death of Prophet.

    5. Among the early leaders, only Umar governed the state with a high degree of meritocracy and with his stern hands.

    6. The evolving process of succession under Shura practically perished with the civil war that resulted in the death of Usman. The process ultimately replaced with the dynastic transfer of power and wars among the dynasties. The concept of Shura was left for sermons and text books.

    7. The core causes of first civil war were nepotism and corruption. Nepotism could be an alien notion to a 7th century tribal society but the later Muslims did little or no work on this subject.



  • @Azizi Jee

    "Thanks for the info. I have read about Abu Zar and Salman Farsi but I do not know anything about the other two. Your comments did answer some of the questions in my mind, that why were not these companion mentioned in the history after the Prophet. Can you recommend pointers about latter part of their lives and if they actively voiced for the political position of Ali[r] after the Prophet."


    In my belief system, we are all creations of Creator Allah SWT. He could have, through any mechanism of choosing, enforced His obedience on all creations including human beings such that everyone was a true Muslim. But, compulsion is not part of mechanism that Allah SWT chose.

    He chose method of guidance through intelligence and guides as Prophets and starting with Prophet Ibrahim, gave some of the rank of Imam. He also filled the multiverse with evidences for human beings to explore with its nature of curiousity. After, setting up this mechanism He left human beings to chose path. You are free to chose yours and I am free to chose mine. I respect your choice as long as you don't impinge on mine and I expect reverse.

    Prophet of Islam followed similar philosophy. During his life, starting from the initial vahi, to invitation his relatives to Islam, to life in Medina and Mecca he identified in various ways that Ali ibne Abi Talib is best person after Prophet. I will reference couple of examples later in the post.

    As I said before in Islam there is no compulsion. Muslims after Prophet decided not to ask Ali ibne Abi Talib to take care of affairs of Muslims. Ali ibne Abi Talib was not running after the rule over Muslims as his first responsibility from the time of besath till his shahadat was to defend the message of Islam and be the best role model in various capacities during his sixty odd years. Even after death of third Caliph when he was approached by many common Muslims and Sahabis, he was reluctant to accept Caliphate as he knew that his intensity of justice will not be liked by many. As he accepted Caliphate, he emphasised that he will only follow Holy Quran and Sunnah of Holy Prophet of Islam.

    All true followers of Ali ibne Abi Talib, including the ones I have mentioned and others, were true Shias. After Prophet of Islam left this world, they truly followed Ali ibne Abi Talib. When Ali ibne Abi Talib was not running after the rule of Muslim, they did exactly what Ali ibne Abi Talib wanted them to do. That is just spend effort in making Islam stronger, by spreading the message of Islam through logic and reason. If they were to actively voice for position for Ali ibne Abi Talib, they would be going against wishes of Ali ibne Abi Talib and couldn't have been true Shia of Ali ibne Abi Talib.


    **

    Sample of evidences of High Calibre of Ali ibne Abi Talib as mentioned in Holy Quran and by Prophet of Islam.**

    In Holy Quran, Sura Maidah Ayat 55, there is reference to Allah SWT, Prophet of Islam and those who give zakat during salat in ruku are Vali. There are narrations from multiple sources that only person who gave zakat (ring) in ruku during prayer was Ali ibne Abi Talib

    **

    إِنَّمَا وَلِيُّكُمُ اللَّهُ وَرَسُولُهُ وَالَّذِينَ آمَنُوا الَّذِينَ يُقِيمُونَ الصَّلَاةَ وَيُؤْتُونَ الزَّكَاةَ وَهُمْ رَاكِعُونَ { 5:55}

    [5:55] Only Allah is your Vali and His Messenger and those who believe, those who keep up prayers and pay the poor-rate while they bow.

    **

    Prophet of Islam has referred to position of Ali ibne Abi Talib to himself same as that of Harun with Musa, except no prophet after Prophet of Islam.

    Lastly, after the farewell Hajj, Prophet of Islam asked the ones who had gone ahead to comeback and the ones behind to gather at Ghadeer to make declaration that Ali ibne Abi Talib is Maula of everyone for whom I (Prophet) is Maula.

    **O people, Allah is my Lord and I am the lord of the believers. I am worthier of believers than themselves. Of whomsoever I had been Master (Mawla), Ali here is to be his Master.[a] O Allah, be a supporter of whoever supports him (Ali) and an enemy of whoever opposes him and divert the Truth to Ali.'

    **

    As a true Muslim, I am supposed to accept whatever Prophet gave me that is do whatever he wants me to do and don't do whatever he doesn't want me to do. As a Maula, my obedience to him is required and since Prophet of Islam gave same designation to Ali ibne Abi Talib, he basically giving guidance as who is deserving of mastership after he leaves this world.

    This is exactly, what the above mentioned Shias of Ali ibne Abi Talib did. Unfortunately, most of us who call ourselves as Shias are not even close to the ones mentioned above.


    For you and those who want to learn about human justice of Ali ibne Abi Talib, please read this book written by a Christian.

    This book is an English translation of Sautu'l `Adalati'l Insaniyah, the biography of the Imam Ali, written in Arabic by George Jordac, a renowned Christian author of Lebanon. It has gained much popularity in the Arab and the Muslim world. Many Muslim and non-Muslim scholars have paid it glowing tributes.

    http://www.al-islam.org/voice-human-justice-sautul-adalatil-insaniyah-george-jordac

    http://www.4shared.com/office/fgG0vLeD/George_Jordac_-_The_Voice_Of_H.htm


    @Azizi Jee, I will try to get links to books about the above mentioned True Followers of Ali ibne Abi Talib.



  • "true Shia of Ali ibne Abi Talib."

    Can you please for my information, tell me what "Shia" means?



  • According to information available through history books, Hazrat Ali was more intelligent, knowledgeable and wise person.

    Had he been elected or selected the fist Khalifa of Muslim State, there would have more rational way of life.



  • Joginder Singh

    R.T.F.Q